Introducing WPA3

Ruckus releases an article with more detail about the recently announced WPA3 from Wi-FI Alliance. One thing that is quite relieving when this new technology introduced is that “all devices supporting WPA3 will continue to work with WPA2 devices” as stated by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The four main features in the new WPA3 are: New…

Capturing bad TCP packets

Just a quick post on Wireshark. To look for only bad TCP packets, use tcp.analysis.flags filter.

PFC (Priority Flow Control)

PFC (Priority Flow Control) (IEEE 802.1Qbb) provides backward congestion notification on Layer 2 Ethernet by sending PAUSE frame selectively based on 802.1p COS value. Initially, IEEE 802.3x PAUSE works by sending PAUSE frame for any traffic flow regardless.

lacp suspend-individual

When an end-host configured with port-channel LACP or NIC- or link-teaming, it requires the adjacent switch ports to receive LACP PDU to be able to start the negotiation and bring the port-channel to Up and Operational status. Without the end-host sending these LACP PDU, the switch ports will keep its status as down. It sounds…

Cisco Catalyst 9000 (C9K)

Cisco Catalyst 9000 (C9K). Highlights Same binary image across all C9K; Open IOS-XE 16.5. Note. the term Open IOS-XE is for the new released IOS-XE starting on version 16. Using database approach to store configuration. SMU (Software Maintenance Update). To get rid of bug, there is patch which can be installed without upgrading the IOS-XE…

RIPv2 Notes

RFC 2453 – RIP Version 2 Distance Vector IGP. Routers only know what directly connected neighbours tell them (Routing by Rumour). Routers only know what is the routing as it told by neighbours but does not actually know the state/condition of the route itself.

RIP Offset-List

Two routers R9 and R7 where R7 is connected to the rest of the network and R9 is the edge network. All of the network is exchanging routes via RIP version 2 with no-summary option.


Storm Control blocks an interface upon receiving unicast, multicast, or broadcast packets flood based on the threshold value within one second period of time. This can be handy to prevent or at least reduce network flooding activities that can impact the network performance. When the offending traffic reaches the Rising Threshold (RT), the interface blocks…

Visio Flat Network Icon

I have created just a few standard Microsoft Visio Flat Network icons and they are available for all to use and share. The idea was to have network icons that are 2D instead of the 3D version for drawing consistency and making it easier to apply Visio diagram theme. These icons allow you to un-group…